Imakethe yezincwadi zezingane inamakhono amangakanani?

-Kusuka ku-SmartFortune

ISina Education ikhiphe i- "White Paper on Chinese Chinese Education Consumption" (ngemuva kwalokhu ebizwa ngokuthi yi "White Paper") ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezedlule. “IPhepha Elimhlophe” likhombisa ukuthi inani lokusetshenziswa kwemfundo yasekhaya liyaqhubeka nokukhuphuka. Ngaphezu kwabazali abangama-50% bakholelwa ukuthi imfundo yezingane zabo ibaluleke kakhulu kunezinye izindleko zomndeni. Ukuze izingane zabo zibe nekusasa elihle, abazali baqala ukutshala isikhathi esiningi, amandla nemali emfundweni yokuqala ngesikhathi sobuntwana. Njengenye yezindlela eziqonde kakhulu zemfundo yezingane, izingane ezifunda izincwadi seziphenduke imakethe eshisayo enamandla amakhulu okuthuthuka.

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Ukufundwa kwamaphepha kuthuthukisa ukugxila nokucabanga

 

   Eminyakeni yamuva nje, "ukushona kwamaphepha amaningi" bekusakazeka kwi-Intanethi, futhi kukholakala ukuthi ngaphansi komthelela wokufunda nge-elekthronikhi, ukufundwa kwamaphepha kuzohoxa ngokuphelele emkhakheni wokufundwa kwabantu. Kodwa ingabe kunjalo ngempela? Kusukela ukuthuthukiswa kokufunda nge-e, yize ukufundwa okususelwa ephepheni kudale inkinga enkulu ngezinga elithile, ukufunda okususelwa ephepheni ngeke kuphele, ngoba ukufunda okwenziwe ngephepha kunezinzuzo eziningi ezingeke zathathelwa indawo ukufundwa ngekhompyutha.

  Ukufundwa kwamaphepha kusho indlela yokufunda esebenzisa iphepha njengesithwali, okuhlukile ekufundweni kwe-elekthronikhi. Inenani eliyingqayizivele futhi inika abantu umuzwa ongenakuqhathaniswa. Kubikwa ukuthi okuhlangenwe nakho komuntu ngokomzwelo kungafinyelela esicongweni saso ngenkathi kufundwa iphepha. Uma kuqhathaniswa nokufundwa kwedijithali, ukufundwa kwamaphepha kwendabuko kugxila kakhulu encazelweni “yokufunda” uqobo, okuvumela abafundi ukuthi bafunde ngokuthula, ukuze bathole ulwazi olujulile lolwazi, bezwe ngobuhle bezincwadi, futhi babone ubuhle obuyingqayizivele bobuciko bolimi .

Ukufunda akusona isenzo esilula sokufunda. Inokunaka, ukucabanga, nezakhi ezahlukahlukene. Yize zingaphansi komthelela wobuchwepheshe be-elekthronikhi, abathwali bokufunda babantu bazobhekana nezinguquko ezinkulu, kepha kubalulekile kakhulu ukuhlakulela imikhuba yokufunda izincwadi yamaphepha yezingane ngesikhathi sobuntwana. UZhu Yongxin, ingcwethi kwezemfundo kanye lomkhulumeli wezithombe zokufunda kuzwelonke, wake wathi enkulumweni ethile ukuthi ukuxazulula ngempela inkinga “yabantu abanekhanda eliphansi”, kumele siqale besebancane futhi sihlakulele imikhuba emihle yokufunda yezingane, ikakhulukazi ukufunda izincwadi zamaphepha, esiza ekuhlakuleleni ukugxila kwezingane nekhono lokucabanga.

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Izidingo zezingane ezifundwayo zezincwadi zemfundo ziyaqhubeka nokukhuphuka

 

Ngokwe- "China China Book Retail Market Report", usayizi ophelele wemakethe yezitolo yaseChina ngo-2017 kwakungu-80.32 billion yuan, lapho izincwadi zezingane zazine-24.64% yayo yonke imakethe yezitolo ezidayisa izincwadi, zanikela ngaphezu kokukodwa kokuthathu kokuthengisa inani. Eminyakeni emine kusukela ngonyaka wezi-2014 kuya kowezi-2017, izinga lokukhula elijwayelekile lokuthengiswa okuphelele kwezincwadi zezingane lifinyelele ngaphezu kuka-50%, okwababazwa yile mboni ngokuthi "lijubane eliphezulu kakhulu elisezingeni lomhlaba". Kunezindlu zokushicilela ezifuywayo ezingaphezu kwama-500 kanye nezincwadi zezingane ezingaphezu kuka-470. Inani lezincwadi zezingane zezinhlobo ezingama-476,000 lidlula elase-United States, likleliswe kuqala emhlabeni. Izwe lami linemakethe enkulu yezincwadi yezingane yabantwana abayizigidi ezingama-367, enenani eliphelele lonyaka lokuphrinta elingaphezu kwezigidi ezingama-800, izinhlobo ezingaphezu kuka-300,000 ezithengiswayo, kanye nokuthengiswa okuphelele kwama-yuan angaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-14.

   Ngokusho kombiko wezincwadi zango-2017 okhishwe nguMnyango Wezincwadi Nezokuzijabulisa weJingdong, ngokusho kokukhula konyaka kwekhodi yokuthengisa, izincwadi zamasiko nezemfundo zikleliswe kuqala, izincwadi zezingane zikleliswe endaweni yesibili, nezincwadi zemibhalo zikleliswe endaweni yesithathu. Ngokwesibalo sabasebenzisi, inani lezincwadi zezingane ngo-2015 likleliswe endaweni yesine; ngo-2016, ikleliswe endaweni yesibili, isalela emuva kuphela emasikweni nasemfundweni, futhi iphakeme kancane kunezincwadi zemibhalo; yize inani lezincwadi zezingane liqhubeke nokuthola isibili ngo-2017, bekuhambisana nokukleliswa Okwesithathu ukuthi igebe lenani labasebenzisi bezincwadi zemibhalo liye lakhula kancane kancane.

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Ngokombiko wemininingwane yemakethe yezincwadi yabantwana ka-2017 okhishwe yincwadi yezinkampani i-e-commerce iDangdang, ngesisekelo seminyaka emi-5 elandelanayo yezinga lokukhula kukaMa Yang elingaphezu kwama-35%, Izincwadi Zezingane zeDangdang zithole ukukhula okusheshayo ngama-60% ngonyaka wezi-2017, nge inani lokuthengisa eliphelele lezigidi ezingama-410. Phakathi kwazo, imikhakha emithathu yezinsika zemibhalo yezingane, izincwadi zezingane zezithombe, kanye ne-encyclopedia yesayensi ethandwayo yagcina ukukhula okuzinzile.

  Ikhono elikhulu lemakethe livumele izindlu zokushicilela ezingaphezu kwama-90% ezweni lonke ukuthi zibeke unyawo emkhakheni wokushicilela izincwadi zezingane. Umfutho omuhle wokuthuthuka wemakethe yezincwadi zezingane ezifuywayo ufake umgqumo omusha ezinkampanini eziningi zokuphrinta, okubavumela ukuthi bathole izindawo zokukhulisa amabhizinisi ezingaba khona. Eqinisweni, amathuba ezinkampani zokuphrinta awakhawulelwe kwezasekhaya kuphela. Ngaphansi kokuqondiswa okulungile kwenqubomgomo yezwe "yokuphuma", izinkampani zokuphrinta nazo zinemakethe enkulu yomhlaba wonke.

   "Ukuphuma" Vumela Izincwadi Zengane ZamaShayina Ziye Emhlabeni Wonke

   Izincwadi zezingane zaseChina zidlule ezigabeni ezintathu: "akekho onendaba", "waqonda kancane kancane futhi waqaphela" kanye "nokukhula okukhulu". Ngokwamukelwa komhlaba wonke kwezincwadi zezingane zaseChina, izigaba zezincwadi zezingane eziphumayo zibanzi futhi zibanzi, nomthelela wazo emhlabeni nawo uyanda. Eminyakeni yamuva nje, njengoba amandla ezwe athambile ekhuphukile, abashicileli basekhaya bandise umkhawulo wabo ngokwethula izincwadi nokubamba iqhaza emibukisweni yezincwadi yamazwe omhlaba. Ngasikhathi sinye, ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kohlelo lwe "Belt and Road", izincwadi eziningi zithunyelwe emazweni angomakhelwane we "Belt and Road", futhi isibalo sokuphuma sanda njalo.

   Ingena ngekhulu lama-21, imakethe yezincwadi zezingane zaseChina ikhule ngesilinganiso sonyaka esingu-10%, esibala ngaphezu kuka-40% wamasheya ezincwadi, abizwa ngokuthi "iminyaka eyishumi yegolide" yokwenziwa kwezincwadi zezingane zaseChina. Imboni yokushicilela iyavuma ukuthi ukushicilelwa kwezincwadi zezingane eChina kungena "eminyakeni eyishumi yegolide" yesibili, futhi sisuka ezweni elikhulu lezincwadi zezingane sishicilela ezweni lokushicilela izincwadi zezingane. Njengoba ukushicilelwa kwezincwadi zezingane kuhamba umhlaba wonke, izinkampani eziningi zokuphrinta ezinamazinga wokuphrinta izincwadi zezingane zaseChina zizongena kancane kancane emakethe yaphesheya kwezilwandle futhi zingene ezingeni lomhlaba zigcwele ithemba nenselele.


Isikhathi Iposi: Dec-09-2020