Wazi kangakanani ngamazinga wokuvikelwa kwemvelo okuphrintwa kwezincwadi zezingane?

Imakethe yezincwadi zokuphrinta izingane zaseChina iya ngokuya ichuma njengoba abazali benaka kakhulu ukufunda futhi abazali abaningi banake kakhulu ukufunda. Njalo lapho kukhuthazwa isitolo esiku-inthanethi, imininingwane yokuthengisa yezincwadi zezingane ihlala imangalisa impela. Ngasikhathi sinye, izidingo zabazali zokuphrinta izincwadi zezingane nazo ziyanda ngasikhathi sinye nezidingo zazo zokuqukethwe, ikakhulukazi ukuphepha nokuvikelwa kwemvelo kokuphrintwa kwezincwadi zezingane. Izinhlangano eziningi zokushicilela seziqalile ukumaka izincwadi zamaphepha ezingane ezinjengokuthi “izincwadi eziluhlaza eziphrintiwe” futhi “eziphrintiwe ngoyinki wesoya”.

Wazi kangakanani ngamazinga wokuvikelwa kwemvelo wokuphrinta izincwadi zezingane eziqeqeshiwe? Lo mbhalo wulwazi olufanele olwethulwe yi-SmartFortune ngalolu daba. Amagama angahle abe ngochwepheshe, kepha inkinga yokuvikelwa kwemvelo yezincwadi zezingane iyinkinga yansuku zonke wonke umzali onakekela izingane okufanele abhekane nayo. Ngiyethemba ukuthi lokhu kungaqhubeka nokuvusa wonke umuntu Value

new5 (1)

Inkinga yokuvikelwa kwemvelo yezincwadi zezingane iyinkinga yansuku zonke wonke umzali onakekela izingane okufanele abhekane nayo

Abazali abaningi manje sebenake kakhulu ukutshalwa kwemikhuba yokufunda yezingane, ngakho-ke bazolungiselela izinto ezahlukahlukene eziphrintiwe ezifana namakhadi, izincwadi zezithombe, nezincwadi zezingane zabo. Kodwa-ke, uma unganaki noma ungakhathaleli ikhwalithi yemikhiqizo ephrintiwe lapho ukhetha le mikhiqizo ephrintiwe yezingane zakho, kungahle kudale ukuthi eminye imikhiqizo ephrintiwe ibe namazinga ahlukahlukene omthelela ongemuhle empilweni yezingane.

Ngakho-ke hlobo luni lwezinto eziphrintiwe ezizoletha imiphumela emibi? Ake sikhulume ngokuvikelwa kwemvelo. Ukuvikelwa kwemvelo kwezinto eziphrintiwe kanye nekhwalithi yento ephrintiwe akufanele kudidaniswe. Izinga lezinto eziphrintiwe libhekisa ekubhaleni nasekucaceni kwemigqa, kanye nokukhiqizwa kabusha kombala okunembile. Ukuvikelwa kwemvelo kwezinto eziphrintiwe kusho ukuthi abafundi abazilethi izingozi empilweni kubafundi uma befunda ngezinto eziphrintiwe.

Ukukhulunywa okukhethekile kwezincwadi zezingane kungenxa yokuthi izingane zinamathuba amaningi okufaka izinto ezinobungozi ezintweni eziphrintiwe lapho zifunda. Okokuqala, ngoba izingane, ikakhulukazi ezisencane, zingaba nomkhuba wokudabula nokuluma izincwadi lapho zifunda; okwesibili, imikhiqizo eminingi yokufunda yezingane inenani elikhulu lezithombe zombala, futhi inani likayinki elisetshenzisiwe lingaphezu kombhalo ojwayelekile. INkosi inezincwadi eziningi. Ngakho-ke, izincwadi zezingane kufanele zibe nezinga eliphakeme lokuvikelwa kwemvelo kunezincwadi ezijwayelekile.

Mayelana nalokhu, singahlaziya izinto ezisemqoka ezingafundwa yindaba ebhaliwe: iphepha, uyinki, iglu nefilimu.

Uyinki ungaqukatha i-benzene, ikakhulukazi ama-inki ombala. Kusetshenziswa izixazululi ezifana ne-benzene. Ngemuva kokuphrintwa kwencwadi entsha, i-solvent ayisebenzi ngokuphelele, futhi umfundi uzokhipha iphunga elingemnandi ngemuva kokuvula iphakethe. I-Benzene ne-toluene yiziphuzo ezinephunga elinamandla futhi zinobuthi obedlulele. Abalimazi nje kuphela umgudu wokuphefumula, kepha futhi babangela ubuthi obunzima kanye nokukhubazeka kwesistimu yezinzwa emaphakathi. Ukuhogelana kwesikhashana kungenza abantu babe nesiyezi futhi babe nesicanucanu. Ukuvezwa kwesikhathi eside kungalimaza umnkantsha futhi kubangele i-leukopenia ne-thrombocytopenia. Futhi i-aplastic anemia njalonjalo.

Omunye umthombo wephunga elibi yiglue esetshenziselwa ukubopha. Ingxenye enkulu yeglue yezincwadi ezibophezelayo isebenzisa umenzeli wokomisa okusheshayo. Lesi sakhi samakhemikhali esishubile ngokuvamile siyanyamalala ngemuva kwezinsuku eziyi-10 kuye kwezingu-20. Kodwa-ke, le ncwadi ivaliwe esikhwameni sokupakisha futhi iphunga alinakusakazeka, ngakho-ke umfundi usazoba nephunga elikhethekile ngemuva kokuyithola esandleni Ngaphezu kwalokho, elinye iphepha elisezingeni eliphansi kanye nezinamathiseli liqukethe inani elikhulu le-formaldehyde, likhipha iphunga elinamandla. Ukuchayeka isikhathi eside kumakhemikhali anjalo kuyingozi kakhulu empilweni futhi kuthinta kakhulu ukukhula komzimba kwezingane.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngenxa yokuthi imikhuba yezincwadi yezingane yehlukile kuleyo yabantu abadala, izinsimbi ezisindayo ezingaqukatha uyinki nephepha elisezingeni eliphansi, njengomthofu, zizongena emzimbeni womuntu ngesandla nasemlonyeni wengane, futhi zithinte umzimba wengane. Lapha, abazali kufanele bakhunjuzwe ukuthi ukuze kuncishiswe izindleko zezincwadi ezigwetshiwe, kuvame ukusetshenziswa iphepha eliphansi, uyinki neglue. Umbiko wokuhlolwa kwezindaba oqinile ukhombisa ukuthi ezinye izincwadi eziphangiwe ziqukethe ukuhola okuphindwe kayikhulu kunezincwadi zokuqala zohlobo olufanayo. , Lapho uthengela izingane izincwadi, naka ngokukhethekile ukukhomba izincwadi eziphangiwe.

Ezincwadini zangempela, amazinga wokuvikelwa kwemvelo nawo kufanele asetshenziswe ukukhawulela okuqukethwe kwezakhi ezinobungozi ezintweni eziphrintiwe.

new5 (2)

NgoSepthemba 14, 2010, owake waba yiGeneral Administration of Press and Publication noMnyango Wezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo basayine “Ukuqaliswa Kwesivumelwano Sokubambisana Samasu Okuphrinta Okuphilayo”, kugxilwe ekulawulweni okuqinile kwezinsalela zensimbi esindayo kanye nokungcoliswa kwezinto eziphilayo okungaqondakali ezicini ezintathu: iphepha, uyinki nokuncibilika okushisayo.

Ngo-Okthoba 8, 2011, iGeneral Administration of Press and Publication kanye noMnyango Wezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ngokuhlanganyela bakhipha “Isimemezelo Sokuqaliswa Kokuphrinta Okuluhlaza” esacacisa umbono oqondisayo, ububanzi nezinhloso, inhlangano nokuphathwa, amazinga wokuphrinta oluhlaza, okuluhlaza isitifiketi sokuphrinta, namalungiselelo omsebenzi wokusetshenziswa kokuphrinta okuluhlaza. Futhi ukusekela izindlela zokuvikela, njll., Kwenze ukuthunyelwa okuphelele ukukhuthaza ukuqaliswa kokuphrinta okuluhlaza.

Ngo-Ephreli 6, 2012, iGeneral Administration of Press and Publication yakhipha “Isaziso Sokuqaliswa Kokuphrintwa Okuluhlaza Kwezincwadi Ezifundwayo Ezikoleni Zamabanga Aphansi kanye Nasesekondari”, eyayithi izincwadi zokufunda zamabanga aphansi nezamabanga aphakeme kumele ziphrintwe izinkampani zokuphrinta ezithole okuluhlaza ukuphrinta isitifiketi somkhiqizo welebula yemvelo. Inhloso yomsebenzi ukuthi kusukela kwisemester ka-2012, inani lezincwadi eziluhlaza eziphrintiwe eziluhlaza ezisetshenzisiwe ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene kufanele kube ne-30% yokusetshenziswa okuphelele kwezincwadi zasendaweni zamabanga aphansi kanye namabanga aphakeme; ngo-2014, uMnyango Wokuphathwa Kwezokuphrinta Wezokuphathwa Kombuso Wezindaba, Umsakazo, Amafilimu kanye neThelevishini wamemezela ukuthi izincwadi zesikole zamabanga aphansi nezamabanga aphezulu zizotholakala ngokuyisisekelo Ukufakwa okuphelele kokuphrinta okuluhlaza.

“Izidingo zomkhiqizo olebuli womkhiqizo wezinki zokunyathelisa ze-offset” zisebenza kuma-inki wokuphrinta we-offset ngaphandle kwama-inks aphulukisa ngemisebe. Kubhekiswa emazingeni welebuli yemvelo yaseJapan, e-Australia, eSouth Korea, eNew Zealand nakwamanye amazwe, futhi kubhekisisa kabanzi isimo sobuchwepheshe nemikhiqizo yabakhiqizi bakayinki be-offset bezwe lakithi. Ngokuya ngezici zemvelo. Izidingo zokulawula izinyibilikisi ze-benzene, izinsimbi ezisindayo, izinhlanganisela eziguquguqukayo, amakhemikhali e-hydrocarbon anephunga elimnandi, kanye namafutha emifino kuma-inks wokunyathelisa we-offset kuyabekwa phambili. Ngasikhathi sinye, kwenziwa imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa okuphephile kwemikhiqizo, ukusetshenziswa ngempumelelo nokonga izinsizakusebenza, nokunciphisa ukukhiqizwa nokusetshenziswa kwama-inks wokunyathelisa we-offset. Futhi nomthelela emvelweni nasempilweni yabantu ngenkathi kwenziwa ukulahlwa, kuthuthukiswa ikhwalithi yezemvelo, futhi kukhuthaze ukukhiqizwa nokusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi obuncane, engaguquki kakhulu.

Futhi ukubona ukuthi uyinki uyinki yini onakekela imvelo, nokuthi uzoba nomthelela omubi kumbhali, ikakhulukazi sibheka la maphuzu amabili alandelayo: Okokuqala, izinsimbi ezisindayo. Ngenxa yemikhuba yezincwadi yezingane, izinsimbi ezisindayo kuyinki zingahogela zisuka emlonyeni. Owesibili udaba olushintshashintshayo. Phakathi kwama-solvents kanye nezithasiselo ezisetshenziswe ku-inki, kukhona ama-hydrocarbon anephunga elimnandi, ama-alcohol, ama-esters, ama-ether, amaketoni, njll. Azohwamuka njengoba inki isoma futhi ingena ohlelweni lokuphefumula lomfundi.

new5 (3)

Ngakho-ke yiziphi izinhlobo eziyinhloko zama-inki alungele imvelo?

 

1. Uyinki welayisi we-rice

Ubuchwepheshe benki yerayisi we-rice buvela eJapane. Njengamanje, izikhungo nezinkampani eziningi eChina zenza ucwaningo ngayo. Isizathu esikhulu ukuthi zombili iChina neJapan amazwe amakhulu elayisi adliwayo nokukhiqizwa. Isigaxa selayisi esikhiqizwa ngesikhathi senqubo yokukhula kwelayisi sisetshenziswe kuphela njengokudla kwezilwane. Ayisebenzisanga inani layo eliphakeme, futhi ukuthuthukiswa kwerayisi bran uwoyela isizinda ubuchwepheshe kanye nentuthuko kwezobuchwepheshe kawoyela uwoyela bran ngoyinki akukhulisanga nje kuphela ukukhulisa inani lelayisi, kodwa futhi kuthuthukise nokuvikelwa kwemvelo nokuthuthuka okusimeme kokuphrinta uyinki .

Izinzuzo eziyinhloko zikayinki welayisi we-rice yilezi: inki VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, compounds organic compounds) izinsalela, ukufuduka okuphansi, ukungcoliswa kwemvelo okuphansi; izinsiza ze-rice bran zilula ukuthola indawo, ngokuhambisana nezimo zezwe lami; Uyinki welayisi we-rice une-gloss ephezulu, kubhaliwe Kukhona izinsalela ezimbalwa eziyingozi nokuphepha okuphezulu.

2.Uyinki osuselwe kusoyili

Ama-hydrocarbon amnandi kawoyela wamaminerali uyinki ancishisiwe noma anyamalale, futhi ithonya le-VOC lisengagwemeka. Ngakho-ke, uyinki osuselwa kuwoyela lapho ingxenye kawoyela wamaminerali ithathelwa indawo uwoyela wesoya. Ngemuva kokuthi uwoyela wesoya usuhlanzwe kancane, uxubaniswa nezithasiselo ezifana nezingulube nezinhlaka. Uyinki weSoy unezinzuzo eziningi: ukumelana kokuqala, akukho phunga elicasulayo, ukumelana nokukhanya nokushisa, okulula ukuphinda kusetshenziswe kabusha, umbala obanzi, njll. Ngaphezu kwamafutha wesoya, amanye amafutha emifino angasetshenziswa, njengamafutha ahlanganisiwe.

3. Uyinki owenziwe ngamanzi

Uyinki osuselwa emanzini awunazo izincibilikisi zezinto eziphilayo eziguquguqukayo, futhi udinga ukuhlanjululwa ngamanzi kuphela lapho uphrinta. Ngakho-ke, uyinki osuselwa emanzini wehlisa kakhulu ukukhishwa kwama-VOC futhi ugweme ukungcoliswa kwamakhemikhali aguquguqukayo. Ngasikhathi sinye, yehlisa kakhulu izinto ezinobungozi ezisele ebusweni bomkhiqizo ophrintiwe, futhi ingenye yezinhlobo zikayinki ezihlangabezana kakhulu namazinga okuvikelwa kwemvelo aluhlaza. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusetshenziswa kukayinki osuselwa emanzini kunganciphisa nezingozi zomlilo ezidalwa ugesi ongaguquguquki namakhemikhali awela kalula, futhi kunciphise nephunga elisele eliyinsali ebusweni bezinto eziphrintiwe. Ngakho-ke, ukusetshenziswa kukayinki osuselwa emanzini ekufakweni kokudla, ukupakishwa kwamathoyizi ezingane, ukupakisha ugwayi notshwala kuya ngokuya kwanda.

Ekugcineni, ake sikhulume ngenqubo yokuhlanza. Laminating kuyinqubo kokuqeda ebusweni umhlobiso imikhiqizo ephrintiwe, futhi lisetshenziswa kakhulu zokunyathelisa futhi emaphaketheni izimboni. Kodwa-ke, izinqubo eziningi zokumboza zisasebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bokumboza, okuletha ingozi enkulu emvelweni nasemzimbeni wethu. Inani elikhulu lama-solvents aqukethe i-benzene asetshenziswa kwinqubo yokumboza, kanti i-benzene iyi-carcinogen enamandla. Ngakho-ke, ezimpilweni zethu, kunenqwaba yemikhiqizo yokuphrinta nokupakisha efakwe ubuchwepheshe bokumboza obusheshayo, njengamakhava aboshwe wezincwadi nezinye izincwadi, okuyingozi kakhulu, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni. Ngokombiko wocwaningo ovela kuNational Cancer Society of America, izingane ezivezwa yimikhiqizo equkethe i-benzene isikhathi eside maningi amathuba okuthi ziphathwe yizifo zegazi ezifana ne-leukemia. Ngakho-ke, izincwadi zezingane akufanele zisebenzise inqubo yokuqopha ifilimu ngangokunokwenzeka.

new5 (4)

ISmartFortune inhle kakhulu ekukhiqizeni izincwadi, inkampani ibekwe ekunyatheliseni okusezingeni eliphakeme, eminyakeni yamuva ngaphandle kwebhokisi lokupakisha kanye nesikhwama sephepha, igxile ekwakhiweni nasekukhiqizeni izincwadi zezingane zezemfundo, izincwadi zamakhadibhodi, inamathele ezindinganisweni zayo eziphakeme ukuhlangabezana futhi idlule izidingo zamakhasimende.


Isikhathi Iposi: Dec-09-2020